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Ischaemic heart Disease

CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD) occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. The narrowing and hardening occur as a result of cholesterol and other materials building up in the inner wall of the vessels (plaque formation). As this progresses the blood supply to the heart muscle decreases. This will lead to chest pain.


Risk Factors:  

  • cigarette smoking

  • high cholesterol level

  • high blood pressure

  • diabetes

  • advancing age

  • obesity

  • physical inactivity

  • family history of premature coronary artery disease


  • central chest pain and/or breathlessness during exercise or activity

  • Radiation of pain to the shoulder, arms, neck, jaw or back

  • sweating

  • nausea

  • palpitation

  • giddiness




  • Heart failure

  • Abnormal heart rhythm

  • Cardiac arrest/ Death



-Non drug treatment

  • Healthy lifestyle:

    • Quit smoking

    • Healthy diet

    • Weight reduction

-Drug treatment

  • Medicines are given to:

    • Reduce the tendency of the blood to clot

    • Reduce the heart rate and blood pressure thus decreasing the heart’s demand for oxygen

    • Expand the blood vessels thus increasing the oxygen supply

  • Optimize blood pressure in those with high blood pressure

  • Control of blood sugar level in those with diabetes

  • Dissolve the clot in acute heart attack, this is more effective only if it is administered within a few hours (< 6 hours) of developing symptoms

  • Interventional/surgical procedures

  • Angioplasty (procedure to clear the blockage in the blood vessel)or cardiac bypass surgery may be required in selected cases


TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. Your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it makes. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or used for energy. If this malfunctions, you may have diabetes. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.


Risk Factors:  

  • overweight.

  • Age: 45 years or older.

  • Family history of  diabetes.

  • Sedentary lifestyle

  • Have ever had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) or given birth to a baby who weighed over 4kg



  • Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night

  • very thirsty

  • very hungry

  • blurry vision

  • numb or tingling hands or feet

  • Feel very tired

  • dry skin

  • Have sores that heal slowly

  • Have more infections than usual





  • Diet

  • exercise

  • medications

  • blood sugar monitoring

  • weight reduction

Breast Cancer

BREAST CANCER is a disease that arises when cells in one or both breasts grow uncontrollably. As these cells divide more rapidly than they should, they can accumulate into a tumor.

Breast cancer can begin in any of the three main parts of the breast:

  • The lobules (glands that produce milk)

  • The ducts (tubes that transport milk to the nipple)

  • The connective tissue that surrounds them

The earliest form (in situ) is not life-threatening. Cancer cells can spread into nearby breast tissue (invasion). This creates tumours that cause lumps or thickening. Invasive cancers can spread to nearby lymph nodes or other organs (metastasize). Metastasis can be fatal.


Risk Factors:  

  • Being female. Women are much more likely than men are to develop breast cancer.

  • Increasing age. Your risk of breast cancer increases as you age.

  • A personal history of breast conditions. If you've had a breast biopsy that found lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical hyperplasia of the breast, you have an increased risk of breast cancer.

  • A personal history of breast cancer. If you've had breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of developing cancer in the other breast.

  • A family history of breast cancer. If your mother, sister or daughter was diagnosed with breast cancer, particularly at a young age, your risk of breast cancer is increased. Still, the majority of people diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history of the disease.

  • Inherited genes that increase cancer risk. Certain gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer can be passed from parents to children. The most well-known gene mutations are referred to as BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes can greatly increase your risk of breast cancer and other cancers, but they don't make cancer inevitable.

  • Radiation exposure. If you received radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer is increased.

  • Obesity. Being obese increases your risk of breast cancer.

  • Beginning your period at a younger age. Beginning your period before age 12 increases your risk of breast cancer.

  • Beginning menopause at an older age. If you began menopause at an older age, you're more likely to develop breast cancer.

  • Having your first child at an older age. Women who give birth to their first child after age 30 may have an increased risk of breast cancer.

  • Having never been pregnant. Women who have never been pregnant have a greater risk of breast cancer than do women who have had one or more pregnancies.

  • Postmenopausal hormone therapy. Women who take hormone therapy medications that combine estrogen and progesterone to treat the signs and symptoms of menopause have an increased risk of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer decreases when women stop taking these medications.

  • Drinking alcohol. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer.


  • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit).

  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.

  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.

  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.

  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area.

  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.

  • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast.

  • Pain in any area of the breast.



  • Bone complications: bone pain, Spinal compression, high calcium levels in the blood, Fractures

  • Lung complications: Pleural effusion (fluid accumulation in lungs), Coughing up blood

  • Liver complications: Jaundice , Blocked bile duct

  • Brain complications: Headaches, Seizure, Stroke



  • Surgery. An operation where doctors cut out the cancer.

  • Chemotherapy. Using special medicines to shrink or kill the cancer cells. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given in your veins, or sometimes both.

  • Hormonal therapy. Blocks cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow.

  • Biological therapy. Works with your body’s immune system to help it fight cancer cells or to control side effects from other cancer treatments.

  • Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer cells.

White Structure

A STROKE occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a clot or bursts (or ruptures). When that happens, part of the brain cannot get the blood (and oxygen) it needs, so it and brain cells die.Stroke can be caused either by a clot obstructing the flow of blood to the brain (called an ischemic stroke) or by a blood vessel rupturing and preventing blood flow to the brain (called a hemorrhagic stroke). A TIA (transient ischemic attack), or "mini stroke", is caused by a temporary clot.


Risk Factors:  

  • Previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  • High blood pressure

  • High cholesterol

  • Heart disease

  • Diabetes

  • Obesity



  • paralysis

  • numbness or weakness in the arm, face, and leg, especially on one side of the body

  • trouble speaking or understanding others

  • slurred speech

  • confusion, disorientation, or lack of responsiveness

  • sudden behavioral changes, especially increased agitation

  • vision problems, such as trouble seeing in one or both eyes with vision blackened or blurred, or double vision

  • trouble walking

  • loss of balance or coordination

  • dizziness

  • severe, sudden headache with an unknown cause

  • seizures

  • nausea or vomiting



  • seizures

  • cognitive impairment, including dementia

  • reduced mobility, range of motion, or ability to control certain muscle movements

  • depression

  • mood or emotional changes

  • bed sores

  • sensory or sensation changes



  • Thrombolytic drugs- medications dissolve existing clots

  • Mechanical Thrombectomy- catheterization procedure

  • Blood pressure management

  • Surgery

  • Stroke rehabilitation

- speech therapy

- physical therapy

- occupational therapy

-cognitive therapy

Blood Preasure

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE or HYPERTENSION is a common condition that affects the body's arteries. If you have high blood pressure, the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls is consistently too high. The heart has to work harder to pump blood. If  untreated, high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and other serious health problems.


Risk Factors:  

  • excessive salt consumption

  • a diet high in saturated fat and trans fats

  • low intake of fruits and vegetables

  • physical inactivity

  • consumption of tobacco and alcohol

  • overweight or obese

  • family history of hypertension

  • age over 65 years

  • co-existing diseases such as diabetes or kidney disease.



  • severe headaches

  • chest pain

  • dizziness

  • difficulty breathing

  • nausea

  • vomiting

  • blurred vision or other vision changes

  • anxiety

  • confusion

  • abnormal heart rhythm



  • Heart attack — High blood pressure damages arteries that can become blocked and prevent blood flow to the heart muscle.

  • Stroke — High blood pressure can cause blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the brain to become blocked or burst.

  • Heart failure — The increased workload from high blood pressure can cause the heart to enlarge and fail to supply blood to the body.

  • Kidney disease or failure — High blood pressure can damage the arteries around the kidneys and interfere with their ability to filter blood effectively.

  • Vision loss — High blood pressure can strain or damage blood vessels in the eyes.

  • Sexual dysfunction — High blood pressure can lead to erectile dysfunction in men and may contribute to lower libido in women. 

  • Angina — Over time, high blood pressure can lead to heart disease including microvascular disease (MVD). Angina, or chest pain, is a common symptom.

  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) — Atherosclerosis caused by high blood pressure can lead to narrowed arteries in the legs, arms, stomach and head, causing pain or fatigue.



  • eating a healthy, low-salt diet

  • losing weight

  • being physically active

  • quitting tobacco

  • medications


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